This history of vaccinations is explained in this five-minute NBC video
Wednesday, September 23, 2020
Monday, September 14, 2020
Research results were presented online via “Poster Sessions” available for viewing through web browsers. More papers than ever focused on firefighters. I’m going to synthesize the research on my Blog, one study at a time.
It’s an established fact that cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the fire service. In this study of 127 firefighters, 83% were obese and at risk for heart disease as evidenced by their blood lipid profiles.
Only 33% of the sample regularly exercised at the suggested minimum frequency of 3-5 times per week. Dietary habits suggest that consumption of fruits and vegetables did not meet dietary recommendations for a healthy diet.
These data may not be representative of your department, but we have a long way to go to change behaviors in the fire service.
Tuesday, September 8, 2020
Gregory Barber03.14.2020 07:00 AM
By now, let’s hope you’re safely ensconced at home—going a little stir-crazy, perhaps, but doing your part to “flatten the curve.” But let’s say you’re one of those people who can’t stay in. Maybe you deliver Amazon boxes all day long, or you still need to drive a city bus. Or maybe you’re treating sick people in a hospital while trying not to get sick yourself. Or, for that matter, maybe you just have to go to the grocery store. In that case, you might want to know: How long does SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, last on surfaces we touch every day?
Potentially several hours, or even days, according to a preprint published this week by researchers at the National Institutes of Health, Princeton, and the University of California, Los Angeles. The researchers exposed various materials to the virus in the lab. They found that it remained virulent on surfaces for a lengthy period: from up to 24 hours on cardboard to up to two or three days on plastic and stainless steel. It also remained viable in aerosols—attached to particles that stay aloft in the air—for up to three hours. That’s all basically in line with the stability of SARS, the coronavirus that caused an outbreak in the early 2000s, the researchers note.
The researchers caution that work done in the lab may not directly reflect how long the virus can hang around on surfaces out in the world. But it’s a critical part of understanding the virus—and how to forestall the disease’s spread—all the same. That’s because transmission dynamics are difficult to study in the midst of an epidemic. In hospitals and other public spaces, people are doing their best to disinfect, making it difficult to study how microbes behave in the wild.
And similarly, while the researchers tested how long the virus can survive in aerosols suspended in the air, they didn’t actually sample the air around infected people. Instead, they put the virus into a nebulizer and puffed it into a rotating drum to keep it airborne. Then they tested how long the virus could survive in the air inside the drum. The fact that it could live under these conditions for three hours doesn’t mean it’s “gone airborne”—that it hangs around so long in the air that a person can get it just from sharing airspace with an infected person. “This is not evidence of aerosol transmission,” Neeltje van Doremalen, a researcher at the NIH and a coauthor of the study, cautioned on Twitter.
There’s also a difference between a finer “aerosol,” which can hang suspended in the air for a while, and a larger “droplet,” which is more likely to fall down. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, they typically spread the virus via fluid droplets. While the results suggest the virus remains infectious in the air, there’s little evidence so far that infected people are producing aerosols in significant amounts, rather than droplets.
Still, Joseph Allen, a professor of public health at Harvard who wasn’t involved in the study, says the data supports the idea that people should take practical precautions to prevent airborne spread—doing things like ensuring the flow of fresh air and good ventilation. He points out that methods of transmission should be thought of as a spectrum, and that the difference between droplets and aerosols isn’t so stark. “We shouldn’t be waiting to figure out the exact split between transmission modes before we act—we should be taking an ‘all-in’ approach,” he wrote in an email to WIRED.
It’s also still difficult to say how much “fomite” transmission is actually happening—that’s the term for when a bug is left on an object, which is then picked up by others. But this is more evidence to continue playing it safe. While CDC officials have said contaminated surfaces are a less important vector than droplets in person-to-person spread, the agency still advises people to heartily disinfect. The researchers also point out that, in the case of SARS, both fomite and aerosol transmission are thought to have played a role both among super-spreaders—infected people who manage to spread the virus to lots of other people—and in hospital-acquired infections.
Dylan Morris, a researcher at Princeton who co-authored the study, notes that the quick spread of the virus—which is moving faster than those that cause SARS and MERS—means there are additional dynamics at play. A number of studies have suggested significant shedding of the virus early on in the infection, while people are more likely to be going about their normal lives and before they’ve developed the severe symptoms that warn them to stay home.
The researchers now plan to look at how environmental conditions, like temperature and humidity, affect the virus’s ability to stick around. In addition to better understanding of real-world transmission, they also want to know if the spread may slow during warm summers, as it does for the flu.
Read all of our coronavirus coverage here.
Others are also trying to tackle those questions. This week, in another preprint, researchers based in Wuhan published data on aerosols gathered from hospitals and areas around the region. For the most part, the air was clear; places like the hospital intensive care unit they tested were essentially virus-free. But in some areas, they found higher concentrations: in a staff area for example, for example, where doctors and nurses were frequently removing protective gear, and in a mobile toilet for patients. They point to findings in Singapore from a group of researchers at the National Centre for Infectious Diseases, in which a small study involving Covid-19 patients in a hospital there found significant viral shedding in patients’ fecal samples. While that study didn’t find an airborne virus, the Wuhan researchers argue it’s plausible that in the Chinese hospital, toilet flushes could have sent particles into the air.
The research is still early. But taken together, the studies suggest health care providers should take precautions as they ramp up to care for increasing numbers of Covid-19 patients, Morris says. “There's currently no evidence that the general public needs to worry about aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2, but there plausibly could exist risks in specialized hospital settings,” he writes in an email.
Others, like Allen, see more reason for caution. “The guidance for hospitals already includes bringing in more fresh air and enhancing filtration,” he writes. “It strikes me as inconsistent that the public is not getting a similar message.” In any case, he points out the core advice for staying healthy remains the same: Get yourself out of crowds. Stay home if you can. And please, please, wash your hands.
More From WIRED on Covid-19
What's social distancing? (And other Covid-19 FAQs, answered)
Don’t go down a coronavirus anxiety spiral
How to make your own hand sanitizer
Singapore was ready for Covid-19—other countries, take note
Is it ethical to order delivery during a pandemic?
Read all of our coronavirus coverage here
Wednesday, September 2, 2020
Jackie Palmer has set up a go fund me page to help Cheri and her family. Not withstanding her bout with Covid, the storm has taken the roof off of her house.
Check out: https://gf.me/u/yvtkv7
Wednesday, August 26, 2020
(WE ARE THE MIGHTY 25 AUG 20) ... Blake Stilwell
"When our Corps goes in as guards over the mail, that mail must be delivered," wrote Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby. "Or there must be a Marine dead at the post of duty. There can be no compromise." It was the Golden Age of the Gangster, when bank robbers were folk heroes, cheered on by citizens who were suffering under the weight of Prohibition and the Great Depression. But when the mail started getting robbed by these hoods, the Postmaster General asked President Harding to send in the Marines.
In October 1921, gangsters hit a mail truck in New York City, making off with $2.4 million in cash, securities, and jewelry – $34 million dollars when adjusted for inflation. That wasn't the only high-stakes robbery. Between April 1920 and April 1921 alone, thieves stole more than six million dollars in U.S. mail robberies – $85 million when adjusted for inflation. So when the Postmaster asked the President for the Marines, the Commander-In-Chief was happy to oblige.
Harding instructed Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby to meet with Commandant of the Marine Corps Maj. Gen. John Lejeune to "detail as guards for the United States mails a sufficient number of officers and men of the United States Marine Corps to protect the mails from the depredations by robbers and bandits."
Marines from both coasts were activated and armed with trench guns, M1911 pistols, and the M1903 Springfield rifle to stand watch as high-value mail deliveries were moved between institutions, large cities, banks, and government offices. They rode mail trucks and trains, often seated with the driver and in with the valuable cargo. The Navy Secretary told his new detachment of 50-plus Marines and officers:
"To the Men of the Mail Guard, you must when on guard duty, keep your weapons in hand and, if attacked, shoot and shoot to kill. If two Marines are covered by a robber, neither must put up his hands, but both must immediately go for their guns. One may die, but the other will get the robber, and the mail will get through. When our Corps goes in as guards over the mail, that mail must be delivered, or there must be a Marine dead at the post of duty. There can be no compromise."
That was the spirit of the orders. The orders themselves were just as intense.
1. To prevent the theft or robbery of any United States mails entrusted to my protection.
2. To inform myself as to the persons who are authorized to handle the mails entrusted to my protection and to allow no unauthorized persons to handle such mails or to have access to such mails.
3. To inform myself as to the persons who are authorized to enter the compartment (railway coast, auto truck, wagon, mail room, etc.) where mails entrusted to my protection are placed, and to allow no unauthorized person to enter such compartment.
4. In connection with Special Order No. 3, to prevent unauthorized persons loitering in the vicinity of such compartment or taking any position from which they might enter such compartment by surprise or sudden movement.
5. To keep my rifle, shotgun, or pistol always in my hand (or hands) while on watch.
6. When necessary in order to carry out the foregoing orders, to make the most effective use of my weapons, shooting or otherwise killing or disabling any person engaged in the theft or robbery, or the attempted theft or robbery of the mails entrusted to my protection.
The FAQ section of the Mail Guards' training manual tells you everything you need to know about how Marines would respond to this robbery problem, once the gangster tried to break in:
"Q. Suppose he [the robber] is using a gun or making threats with a gun in trying to escape?
A. Shoot him.
Q. Suppose the thief was apparently unarmed but was running away?
A. Call halt twice at the top of your voice, and if he does not halt, fire one warning shot; and if he does not obey this, shoot to hit him.
Q. Is it permissible to take off my pistol while on duty; for instance, when in a mail car riding between stations?
A. Never take off your pistol while on duty. Keep it loaded, locked, and cocked while on duty.
Q. Is there a general plan for meeting a robbery?
A. Yes; start shooting and meet developments as they arise thereafter.
Q. If I hear the command 'Hands Up,' am I justified in obeying this order?
A. No; fall to the ground and start shooting.
Q. Is it possible to make a successful mail robbery?
A. Only over a dead Marine."
Robberies stopped entirely. For four months, the Marines guarded the U.S. Mail, and for four months, there were zero successful robberies. After a while, the Post Office was able to muster its own guard forces, and the Marines were withdrawn from mail duty.
By 1926 robberies shot up again and the Marines were called back.
The second time the Marines were withdrawn, people stopped trying to rob the U.S. mail.